Drawing became a scientific discipline when the concept of representation was combined with that of measurement. This happened in the Renaissance with the invention of linear perspective, which made it possible to represent three-dimensional entities on a flat surface using the principles of Euclidean geometry. The combination of figurative efficiency and geometric rigor in the image ensured the success of the discipline not only among artists but also among mathematicians. The latter used it, for example, to demonstrate the construction principle of the Ptolemaic planisphere. In sixteenth-century military circles, perspective drawing served as a surveying method in cartography; meanwhile, the depiction of fortresses was achieved by means of a different type of perspective specifically known as military perspective. Only later, in the nineteenth century, was it codified as isometric or axonometric perspective. On these premises—which were linked to the need for an objective, measurable representation of physical bodies—the French mathematician Gaspard Monge was to codify the methods of descriptive geometry in the late eighteenth century.

from the website of the Institute and Museum of the History of Science in Florence, Italy

a complete set of industry maps here

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